SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS THROUGH SCIENCE
ENDURING SOIL CAPACITY LIFECYCLE PROCESSES & SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute developed the SABR Soil Lifecycle Systems (SABRSLP), a series of all-natural, economic, environmentally and societally sustainable processes to advance wastelands sands and soils to richlands agricultural growing mediums. The process is a culmination of the Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor (SABR) Acid Mine Drainage, Red Mud and associated effluents management and the SABRBODS biodesalination processes, coupled with the TESSI BioSolve, BioBind, BioSeal, BioStim, BioGrow, BioFert and SymECulture processes, all combinations of Micro, Mezzo and Macro biota. The result is a highly effective, affordable, complete set of all-natural resilient agricultural solutions through sands and soils microbial structuring and development, delivering bioorganic nutrification, wetting, binding, surface stabilization and sealing, metals and metalloid rehabilitation and desalination, in a single process. The addressing of pathogens and viruses is managed through a combination of aerobic thermal composting and bioorganic commodity restructuring according local natural biota to achieve the maximum diversity of the appropriate biota. The SABR bionutrification process provides natural biological soil carbon and stimulates activity and growth support while the binding and wetting processes improve the containment and carrying abilities of the soil. This is coupled with the sealing process, which reduces evaporation and erosion while allowing precipitation influx. The SABR Soil Lifecycle Process is a combination of organic carbon improving substrates supplemented with the SABRSLP fertigation solution which is irrigated or sprayed in volumes calculated according soil and crop needs. The approach is to utilise the SABRSLP, in ecosystem-stable bioremediation and reinvigoration of soils at commercial agricultural levels improving them sustainably. The SABR and SABRBODS processes reduce agricultural and natural environment loss through salinity and the growing intergenerational societal risks that water and soil contamination present.
SYMBIOTIC CULTIVATION SYSTEM
The TESSI SABRSLP integration with the Symbiotic Cultivation System naturally proliferates activation in soil, water and plant biology delivering a sustainable, highly productive organic multiple focus growth program.
Growing Importance Naturally
Plant biostimulants contain substance(s) or microorganisms whose function when applied to plants or the rhizosphere is to stimulate natural processes to enhance/benefit nutrient uptake, nutrient efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stress, and crop quality. Natural biostimulants are a critical ingredient in sustainability and can dramatically reduce the use of ecologically oppressing chemical stimulation and fertilisation.
- Smart growth: Developing an economy based on sound, practiced knowledge and innovation. As a member of the scientific biostimulants sector and research-based industry, TESSI generates knowledge and innovation for a societally prosperous bio-based economy.
- Sustainable growth: Promoting a more resource efficient, greener and more cooperative economy through the utilisation of minimal risk biostimulants to sustainably improve agriculture.
- Inclusive growth: Fostering an improved employment, business generating and business productivity economy delivering local, regional and national ecological and societal cohesion.
- Improving: nutrient uptake efficiency inducing superior quality and yield, coupled with drought resilience and pest and disease resistance.
- Facilitating: nutrient assimilation, translocation and beneficial use,
- Increasing: plant tolerance to and recovery from abiotic stresses,
- Enhancing: quality attributes of produce, including carbon and cellulose content, colour, fruit seeding, etc.,
- Rendering: greater efficiency in water management,
- Enhancing: soil fertility, particularly by fostering the development of complementary soil biology.
Distinguishing Natural Biostimulants From Traditional Crop Advancement inputs.
- Natural Biostimulants: operate through different mechanisms than fertilisers, regardless of the presence of nutrients in the products.
- Natural Biostimulants: differ from crop protection products because they act only on the plant’s vigour and do not have any direct actions against pests or disease.
- Natural Crop Biostimulation: is thus complementary to crop nutrition, crop advancement, harvest improvement and ecological protection.
Plant biostimulants: contain substance(s) or microorganisms whose function when applied to plants or the rhizosphere is to stimulate natural processes to enhance/benefit nutrient uptake, nutrient efficiency, tolerance to abiotic stress, and crop quality. This enables productive plants to uptake nutrients according their needs.
BioGrow is a phytonutrient rhizosphere applied inoculation accelerating natural growth system for crops and rehabilitation plantings, including dry or water-soak plantings. The system can also be blended with a permeable, soils and particulates' binder and stabiliser (BioBindActive) and can be applied at concentration and saturation rates tailored to the climate, receiving medium and plant requirements. The solution binds the soil assisting in erosion and evaporation reduction, allowing moisture-soil permeation through the bound surface, maintaining the light seal reducing soil evaporation when dry. BioGrow can also be blended with BioSeal as required to manage soils and surfaces that present greater difficulty.
BioFert is a topical phytonutrient accelerating topical natural growth system for crops and rehabilitation plantings, including dry or water-soak plantings. The system can also be blended with a permeable, soils and particulates' binder and stabiliser (BioBindActive) and can be applied at concentration and saturation rates tailored to the climate, receiving medium and plant requirements. The solution binds the soil assisting in erosion and evaporation reduction, allowing moisture-soil permeation through the bound surface, maintaining the light seal reducing soil evaporation when dry. BioGrow can also be blended with BioSeal as required to manage soils and surfaces that present greater difficulty.
SABR SOIL ENDURING CAPACITY LIFECYCLE BUILDING NATURAL CROP MANAGEMENT
THROUGH ENDURING BIOORGANIC HIGH CAPACITY SOIL
Bioorganics as the Fundamental Cornerstone of Soil
In principle, all organic materials can be transformed into soil, developing growing medium bulk and improved biological circumstance; yet it is widely considered organic material should only constitute 5% of most mineral soils. A superior Earth Sustaining Sciences approach; the Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor Soil process (SABRSoil) maximises synergistic beneficial biology and bioorganic matter, which in addition to soil conditioning, provide vital nutrients support, especially to the rhizosphere region (plant roots vicinity) in which the soil chemistry and microbiology stability is influenced by both plant and biology growth, respiration, and nutrient exchange. The bioorganic soil components include manifolds of synergistic living organisms, fresh organic residue, and active and stabilised bioorganic matter fractions. Usually, the living soil component, a small fraction of the soil, includes the majority of microbes. The active organic matter is generally unstable and more than 85% of it rapidly disappears as decomposition progresses. However, in the case of the SABRSoil process, these percentages are more beneficially managed. Humus, a complex mixture of organic substances resistant to further decomposition and over time significantly modified from the original forms is usually the most abundant and stable soil component organic matter; containing substances that during the process of decomposition have been synthesised by soil organisms.
Benefits of Biosecure-Bioorganic Soil Management:
Biosecure-bioorganic soil matter content is most important as the primary nutrient supply and soil conditioning factor in crop production systems. Synergistic bioorganic soil matter balances natural chemical and biological processes helping to maintain ideal soil quality parameters, improved water infiltration and water-holding capacity, serving as a nutrients and water reservoir and supplies crops as needed. Bioorganic soil matter plays a significant role in disease and insect pests management by improving the rhizosphere activity and boosting crop vigour. Bioorganic soil matter contains many negatively charged surfaces with a high affinity for organics and metals that might otherwise cause pollution. It has a high pH buffering capacity to resist changes in pH, so soil pH can be tailored or stabilised at the near neutral level. Soils, rich in bioorganic matter also maintain a high cation exchange capacity. With a high level of bioorganic matter, the physical properties and soil tilth is improved, and soil particle size tends to be larger with good structure. Similarly, soil humus ties carbon in the soil reducing otherwise emitted atmospheric carbon dioxide contributing to a greenhouse effect. Soil microbial diversity and quantity generally improve as bioorganic matter increases. Microbiology pays a major role the bioorganic matter decomposition process. With a high level of bioorganic soil matter, beneficial microorganisms reproduce and grow rapidly hastening the decomposition process. High bioorganic soil matter also accelerates mineral weathering, and increases soil pore space, decreasing bulk density.
Factors that Control Bioorganic Soil Matter Build-Up Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio.
The carbon to nitrogen ratio is a major determining factor in the speed of organic material decomposition and nutrient release patterns. Low carbon to nitrogen ratio (< 20:1) favours rapid decomposition resulting in rapid nutrients release. Many responsible beneficial decomposition organisms getting their food source from decomposing materials with a low carbon to nitrogen ratio can multiply rapidly. A medium carbon to nitrogen ratio (between 20:1 and 30:1) results in nutrients release, but the decomposition is slow enough not to have excess nutrients released at the expense of the amount of bioorganic matter being added to the soil. High carbon to nitrogen ratio (>30:1) is an indication that the material is composed of difficult-to-break carbonaceous materials such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. High carbon to nitrogen ratio organic materials tend to stay on the surface of the soil or in the soil for a very long time. Microbes use available soil nitrogen and other nutrients to decompose high C:N ratio materials resulting in net immobilisation of nitrogen. It is very important for an organic producer to make sure materials with low and medium carbon to nitrogen ratios are bulked with those of high carbon to nitrogen ratios to avoid short term plant stress due to insufficient amounts of nitrogen. For instance, usually if it is planned to incorporate wheat straw into the soil, it is important to add low carbon to nitrogen ratio materials such as alfalfa, hairy vetch, or compost to supply nitrogen for microbes which will decompose the straw. The SABRSoil process, beneficially manages this with direct biological column inoculation.
Carbon: Nitrogen ratios of selected organic material
Organic Material Ratio
- Hairy vetch/Alfalfa - 10:1 to 15:1
- Rye (seedlings) - 12:1 to 15:1
- Sweet clover - 14:1 to 16:1
- Food waste - 14:1 to 16:1
- Grass clippings - 18:1 to 20:1
- Fruit waste - 38:1 to 36:1 Dry leaves - 50:1 to 56:1
- Corn stalks - 58:1 to 60:1 Straw - 60:1 to 72:1
- Sawdust - 0:1 to 500:1
The activity of multiple microbes acting effectively on organic materials is a function of temperature. Low temperatures slow down decomposition, while warm temperatures speed it up. The microbes that perform the bulk of the decomposition of organic material prefer temperatures of 18°C to 24°C, and are most active in the temperature range of 15°C to 45°C.
Organic matter decomposition is slowed with pH fluctuations and halted with pH extremes, and decomposition progresses well in the of 5.5 pH to 6.8 pH range. Individual groups of microbes have specific pH requirements for optimal decomposition, a position that has been research and capitalised upon by Earth Sustaining Science over the last 25-years. Naturally, as the process of decomposition more often results in variances in pH, either stimulating or suppressing microbial species, a symbiosis allowing the process to continue smoothly, avoiding substrate accumulation such as the SABR Soil System is imperative.
Moisture and Aeration
Suitable soil moisture enhances the growth of microorganisms that break down organic matter into humus, whereas excess water may lead to anaerobic conditions which slow the degradation process. Anaerobic decomposition is incomplete and does not yield as much energy as aerobic decomposition. A soil moisture of 50 to 70 percent of the soil’s water-holding capacity is generally acceptable. At this moisture level, oxygen is in adequate supply for aerobic decomposition. Soil Organisms Different groups of organisms have various capacities in the process of decomposition. The product of one group may be the food source to allow others further organic material break down. Added organic matter will be progressively colonised and decomposed by the organism community that alters as the composition of the residue changes over time. Bacteria, actinomycetes, protozoa, and fungi are the major microbes responsible for enzyme mediated chemical decomposition. Other soil organisms inclusive of earth worms and arthropods, are also involved in organic residues non-enzyme mediated physical break down.
Nitrogen is one of the primary substrates needed by microbes to decompose organic materials. When decomposing high carbon: nitrogen ratio material, microbes need a continual supply of nitrogen. A sufficient amount must be maintained until the decomposition process reaches critical net mineralisation. Without such a supply, available soil nitrogen will be used for building microbial bodies and be less available for plant uptake.
Strategies for Building Soil Bioorganics
The methods used for building soil bioorganics depend on multiple factors. One factor is the desired outcome. Is the goal simply to supply nutrients, to simply build the soil, or to supply both nutrients and build the soil biology? This question refers to whether creating soil biology and/or engaging in nutrients supply for higher crop yield is achieved in the short-term or considering both yield and conditioning of the soil for optimum long-term production. A primary factor affecting strategies is the type of organic enterprise whether:
- Fruits or vegetables
- Perennial or annual agronomic crops
- A mixed cropping system
- A livestock-crop mixed organic production system
- The proliferation of tree crops to small acre and broad-acre crops.
It is also important to understand the soil type specific requirements, the chemical composition and associated issues potentials. Reducing Soil Bioorganics Loss. The SABR process management of developed and modelled biota ensures systems balance through design, development and inoculation. The SABR Soil Process develops multiple stage soil bioorganics from Simplex, Individual Strike Cultures, through Individual SABR Biological Columns, Symbiotic SABR Colonies and Simplex Biological Manifolds to Complex Strike Cultures, SABR Biological Columns, Symbiotic SABR Colonies, Complex Biological Manifolds.
Adding Bioorganic Management
Soil bioorganics management is highly variable; mineralisation patterns, nutrient content, and effective exchange. It is important to develop a tailored management plan for any application. Simple adding cover crops, green manure, bio-residue, live mulch, animal waste, compost, non-composted debris, and packaged organic fertilisers is a rudimentary approach that will generally achieve in the long term, however biological design in the case of SABR soil reactors is the superior practice.
Cover Crops and Green Manure Crops
A cover crop is defined as any crop that is planted in a field after or prior to harvest of the major crop to cover the field until the next main crop is planted. A green manure crop is the crop grown on a field and turned-in while still green before the main crop is sown; largely to supply nutrients, but to also contribute to the addition of organic material which will propagate soil biology, albeit in a less than optimally balanced form. Cover and green manure crops as biological soil developers and soil bulk supporters serve four purposes:
- Organic matter,
- Nutrients supply,
- Soil stabilisation, and
- Scavenging plant nutrients reduction leaching.
The contribution of cover and green manure crops to build soil biology is dependent on the carbon : nitrogen ratio of the crops. Again, albeit in a less than optimally balanced form. The biological design in the case of SABR soil reactors is the superior practice There are four types of cover or green manure crops.
These are cover crops that remain in the field during the spring season until the soil is prepared for the summer main crop.
These are cover crops planted after the winter main crop is harvested during the summer.
These are crops planted in Autumn which remain on the field during the winter and resume growth in spring until the summer main crop is planted. These crops are essentially very good for adding soil biology through organic matter decomposition as crops grow until maturity and produce significant biomass. Some legumes, such as hairy vetch, and grasses, such as winter rye, are very good options.
Biennials and Perennials
These are considered cover crops but unlike the definition of cover crops entails, these crops remain on the field while the main crop is growing, but certain planting configurations should be developed to avoid competition between the cover and the main crops. In terms of building biology in soil, these crops are often helpful.
Crop residue refers to any organic material including stubble, that remains after an economic crop is harvested from a field. In continuously cropped soils the past rule has been that if two to three tons per acre per year of residue is returned to the soil, soil organic matter often remains at a constant. This however provides no guarantee of soil biological management; the primary outcome requirement.
Amending soil with animal waste is a historic practice. Animal waste can supply nutrients, add organic material, and enrich soil with beneficial organisms. The amount of animal waste and the application design and methodology used determines its contribution in building soil biology. The SABR Soil process is a scientifically balanced methodology that delivers specific needs in three separate tired systems; BioStim, BioGrow and BioFert.
Compost is any organic material that undergoes any controlled conditions decomposition. Any organic material can be converted to compost, but there are selectivity’s regarding what material is best used. Nutrients from compost and uncomposted animal manure are less optimally available to the crop. The are elements of the nutrification building process. The SABR Soil process soil building and biological nutrification is a complete bionutrification application which reduces water pollution, has lower pathogen levels, fewer weed seeds, and improves soil tilth.
Maintaining and Monitoring Soil Bioorganics
Once an acceptable level of soil bioorganics is obtained, it is obviously desirable to maintain it. Maintaining a high level of soil bioorganic balance requires developing a site and enterprise specific management plan. It is important to maintain the inputs and outputs balance. Monitoring the soil bioorganics level is crucial and issues intervention should be rapid. It is necessary to conduct soil testing using a standard set of indicators is paramount to determine soil quality and permit educated decisions. Indicators can be quantified and a critical levels established while others may strictly qualitative.