SABR-Water SABR-Soil SABR-BODS SABR-BioActivate
SEE Video's 7 & 8 Fly 'Though of SABR System 1 & 2' on Video Page
The Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor (SABR)
Wayne Sampey, developed, implemented and proved the SABR system has the ability to treat all levels of acid mine drainage (AMD), extreme alkaline process drainage, and other metals and organic reagent contaminated waters and soils.
SABR allows reduction of unwanted, sub-compliant water volumes utilising tailored bioreactors to correct pH issues at all levels (0-14 pH) and remove contaminants; decreasing contamination of water, soil and the environment, thus reducing risk. SABR is scalable to any required size and throughput using open systems. In situations where space is at a premium or contaminants may be especially hazardous, SABR can be implemented in closed systems.
Complex chemistries often result in a system where conditions appropriate to strip one class of contaminants are conducive to stabilisation of others in solution. SABR allows serial reactor implementation using different sets of bio-cells, such that consecutive manifolds can control all contaminants. SABR can rapidly, naturally and cost effectively treat AMD/ARD and process waters to a standard that allows their safe use or disposal on site, or discharge off site with negligible risk and within compliance requirements. SABR is quick to implement and quick to bring online. Initial tailoring of the approach is through lab based wet chemistry, followed by small scale cost effective on site pilot reactors to determine a site specific bio-tuning and demonstrate that the full scale system will deliver appropriate results.
Figure 1: Engineering layouts for scalable open SABR systems
SABR is scalable to any required size and throughput using open systems. In situations where space is at a premium or contaminants may be especially hazardous, SABR can be implemented in closed systems. Complex chemistries often result in a system where conditions appropriate to strip one class of contaminants is conducive to stabilisation of others in solution. SABR allows serial reactor implementation using different sets of bio-cells, such that consecutive manifolds can control all contaminants (see Figure 1).SABR can rapidly, naturally and cost effectively treat acidic and alkaline process affected soil and water, (0-14 pH) reducing metals, metalloid and other contaminants to a standard that allows their safe use, disposal on site, or discharge off site with negligible risk and within compliance requirements.
SABR is simply and quickly implemented. Initial tailoring of the approach is through wet chemistry, and small scale on-site pilot reactors to determine site specific biotuning and demonstrate the ability of a full-scale system. The bio-tuning process allows optimisation of the SABR system to site specific donor geology, commodity beneficiation processes, water chemistry and climate.
Following more than twenty years of development and field proving, SABR has demonstrated effectiveness in waters associated with coal mines, gold mines, platinum mines, iron mines, phosphate refinery effluents, phosphogypsum effluents, acid refinery effluents, polymineral, rare earth element and radiogenic element bearing effluents, power station effluents, fly ash effluents, agriculture, and coal, gold, copper, zinc, lead, phosphate, poly metals, bauxite/alumina and iron ore tailings facilities. In all cases SABR delivered the solution.
In all cases SABR enabled remediation of the disturbed ecology and rapid reinvigoration of riverine, riparian, lacustrine, wetland, littoral and soil systems.
SABR remediation results demonstration
To date the SABR process has delivered all-natural, minimal risk solutions in water and solids treatment in the form of ‘SABRSimplex’, ’SABRComplex’, SABRBODS’ and ‘SABRBioSolve’ systems for the pH and contaminates management of effluent streams. The ‘SABRBioStim’ and ‘SABRBioGrow’ systems provide multiple level remediation of disturbed ecology, reinvigoration of riverine, riparian, wetland and soil systems progressing soils and growing systems for Environmental Rehabilitation, Environmental Agriculture and Agriculture and Organic Polyculture Permaculture applications.
‘SABR Simplex and ’SABR Complex Systems have delivered all-natural, minimal risk solutions in:
Mining and minerals processing:
- Lead and Zinc,
- Iron ore,
- Poly metals, and
- Rare Earths.
- Phosphate refining,
- Acid manufacture,
- Alumina refining,
- Coal fired power generation.
Tailings, (wet tailings and dry stockpile):
- Iron ore,
- Phosphogypsum, and
- Fly ash.
SABR BioSolve Systems have delivered all-natural, minimal risk solutions in:
- Bauxite/Alumina Refining Effluent and Red Mud Stockpile and Residue, and
- Phosphogypsum Effluent and Waste Stockpile remediation.
SABR BioStim and SABR BioGrow Systems have delivered solutions in Tropical, Temperate, Hot Arid and Cold climes and environments including:
- Element saturated,
- Nutrient depleted,
- High Salinity,
- Riverine, and
‘SABR Bods’, is an all-natural Desalination process that has delivered all-natural, minimal risk water and soils desalination in Mine Pit Lakes, Wetlands, Agricultural lands and natural lands. SABR Bods has delivered 70% desalination in raw seawater, with development continuing.
The SABR BioCell approach to mineral and process affected waters has been advanced and demonstrated the following in separate applications in:
- Gold mine heavily metalliferous pit lake water 2.8 pH to 9 pH in 360hrs.
- Gold mine uranium reduction from above 30 µg/L to zero in 360 hrs.
- Polymetals mine radionuclide reduction from above 110 µg/L to zero in 24 hrs.
- Gold mine arsenical pit lake water 890 μg/L to 3 μg/L in 24hrs.
- Platinum mine metalliferous waste discharge water 4.3 pH to 6.9 pH in 24hrs
- Acid refinery heavily metalliferous waste discharge water 0.5 pH to 3.9 pH in 48hrs.
- Phosphogypsum heavily metalliferous water 1.5 pH to pH in 48hrs.
- Coal mine heavily metalliferous pit water 1.9 pH to 6.4 pH in 60hrs.
- Coal fired power station water 9.8 pH to 5.3 pH in 60hrs and to 6.5 pH in a further 20hrs.
- Coal fired power station fly ash 9.8 pH to 5.3 pH in 60hrs and to 6.5 pH in a further 20hrs.
- Coal mine heavily metalliferous underground decant water 1.5 pH to 5.6 pH in 60hrs.
- Coal mine underground decant water 2.5 pH to 5.4 pH in 24hrs and to 7.4 pH in 260hrs.
- Copper mine effluent from 2.25 pH to 7.2 pH in 12 hours and 6.5 pH to 7.8 pH in 4 hours.
- Gold mine tailings storage heavily metalliferous water 4.3 pH to 5.5 pH in 24hrs.
- Gold mine waste dump heavily metalliferous water 1.5 pH to 6.5 pH in 24hrs.
- Iron ore mine heavily metalliferous pit water 2.46 pH to pH 7 pH in 24 hrs.
- Copper processing effluent from 3.76 pH to 7.4 pH in 23 hours.
- Copper processing effluent from 2.1 pH to 7.2 pH.
- Fly River PNG metalliferous water 6.02 pH to 7.4 pH in 12 hrs.
- Fly River riparian and agricultural metalliferous soil 5.51 pH to 7.65 pH in 12 hrs.
- Pyrite processing effluent from 5.5 pH to 7.8 pH in 12 hours.
- Bauxite & Alumina effluent and red mud tailings from 13.8 pH to below 7 pH in 50 hrs.
- Mine pit lake salinity 25 ppt reduced by 66% to 8.9 ppt (2014)in 168 hrs.
- Gold mine poisoned wetland systems remediated to comprehensive growth in 700 hrs.
- Gold mine contaminated soils remediated from zero to comprehensive growth in 2,000 hrs.
- Seawater salinity 35 ppt reduced by more than 86% to sub-5 ppt (2017) research expanding.
- Sustainable vegetation growth in highly contaminated tailings materials in 130 hrs.
- Crop biostimulation increasing growth by up to 300% and advancing germination by up to 30%.
- Acidic metaliferrous tailings drainage-degraded old growth vegetation rehabilitated in 400 hrs.
*SABR pH improvements are accompanied by desirable metals, metalloids and other contaminants reductions (chemically, the two processes go hand in hand) as shown in the following real case data tables and graphs. (Results measured according the ANZECC 2000 Guidelines)
*Some data presented above does not reveal all levels of improvement; final treatment level abilities remaining undisclosed due to client requirements under NDA.
The SABR water treatment application assessments are conducted over 14-days, incorporating:
- Site and regional and potentials investigation,
- Design of substrates and minimal risk microbiological manifolds, and development of plans,
- Design of tailored SABR bio-reactor application pilot and system.
Figure 2: SABR-AMD and metal remediation open pit mine
ND = Not Detectable
Figure 3: SABR-Metal reductions from Table 1
Note the Sulfate line, this is not simply another sulphate reducing bacteria system.
Figure 4: SABR-Three reactor system running for 2 months
Figure 5: SABR-Metal reduction over all three reactors from Table 2
Figure 6: SABR Process Demonstrating it is More Than A Simple Sulfate Reducing Process.
Figure 7: SABR-BioSolve process pH management of Bauxite & Alumina Processing Effluent and Red Mud
SABR-Polishing Wetland Support
As a useful, though not essential, addition for long term remediation projects, SABR can be implemented with an artificial wetland for final polishing. Such systems work hand in hand with SABR to further lower contaminant levels, increase dwell time to enable further testing of pre-release water stability should such be a requirement by your regulator, and increase emergency containment in the unlikely case of a flooding event or inadvertent high flow rates through operator error. If a wetland polish is an appropriate part of your site solution, ESS can design and implement, or SABR can be tailored to work with the wetland system you already have in place.
Optimised bioreactor for soil environment
With tailored modification the SABR-Soil System accomplishes effective remediation of disturbed and contaminated soils utilising primary structured manifold microorganisms similar to the SABR aquatic reactor. The structured in soil manifolds progressively remediate contaminants whilst allowing the system’s secondary biogenic constituents to deliver balanced improvement in nutrient composition.
As the system progresses, contaminant sequestration coupled with nutrient enrichment enables growth of a selected phyto-transformation crop as the final stage before appropriate planting or soil use. This is analogous to an in situ final stage polishing bioreactor or artificial wetland.
Figure 8 SABR-Polishing Wetland Support
SABR- BioOrganic Desalination System
ESS is at the forefront of low cost bio-organic desalination system research and development. To date, ESS’ new SABRBODS system has reduced seawater salinity by 71% and mine water salinity by 66% in both laboratory and field applications. ESS is currently progressing this exiting and widely applicable solution to bio-organic seawater desalination and industry and agriculture soil and water salinity solutions with practical applications across a range of agriculture, industry and societal sectors.
Figure 8: SABR-BOS Desalination of Mine Pit Water
BioActivate is a biomediated de-armouring system for bulk natural acid neutralising reagents such as appropriate dolomites or limestones. Enhanced by subsets of the SABR microbiological manifolds, BioActivate utilises a complex endemic biological approach to the de-armouring and re-invigoration of natural remediation agents.