EARTH SUSTAINING SOLUTIONS
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS THROUGH SCIENCE
KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN
BAHRAIN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION & WASTE TO ENERGY PROJECT
SHARED SUCCESS IN SYMECULTURE
ENDURING CAPACITY VERTICALLY INTEGRATED PERMANENT AGRICULTURE SOLUTIONS NON-INVASIVE ECOSOCIETAL BIOORGANIC WASTE SOLUTIONS DELIVERING INTERGENERATIONALLY SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, WATER AND AGRICULTURE
ENDURING CAPACITY - ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION
The popular narrative is that the arability of Bahrain has been degraded and that this is not economically remediable. This is incorrect. The environment has become more arid and less productive through the rapid increase of the human impact of current economic and agricultural practices on the ecology. Current ecological management is not optimised to foster long term environmental, agricultural and societally sustainable development; placing Bahrain’s economic and societal advancement at risk. Remediation of this requires the delivery of a vertically integrated suite of holistic solutions which are tailored to both the human and natural ecology of Bahrain, and which can be pushed passed repair and continue forward to deliver intergenerational improvement. These solutions will, of necessity, include practically focused education and training, ecologically coupled agriculture based on proven polyculture and SymECulture practices, and active ecological management that encompasses all the environmental niches of the island including towns and cities functioning as an integrated sustainable ecosocietal system. Western intensive broad-acre agricultural techniques, powered based aquifer irrigation, importing manufactured fertiliser, synthetic pesticides and proprietary GM seed are no longer considered the only profitable methodology and are not considered ecologically or economically sustainable outside of the most ideal circumstances. Many of today’s most productive agricultural regions are not amenable to these processes long term and are using ecosocietally sustainable natural approaches coupled with progressive farming technologies to unlock their full potential. The SABR processes and their agricultural extensions are one such leading alternative.
ENDURING RESILIENCE - METHOD, MINDSET, MANAGEMENT
The combined economic, ecological and societal pressures generated through Bahrain’s increasing needs in water, waste management and agricultural must be managed to prevent devolution to a collapsed cycle. This is achievable through the proven Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute processes, systems and practices. The TESSI team reviewed the Bahrain issues, landscapes and requirements, and has commenced designing an integrated suite of world-first solutions which are intergenerationally sustainable and economically positive to benefit the Bahrain position in the short, medium and long term.
TESSI propose, to develop and deliver a vertically integrated, symbiotic, all-natural set of methodologies and practices that provide stable intergenerational agriculture, with ecological and environmental sustainability by directly addressing: Tubli sewage effluent treatment to high-quality reusable water, Tubli Bay environs full remediation, Municipal bioorganic solids (sewage), food waste and green waste management, Oil industry production and process waters treatment to multiple reuse water, and Water desalination and soil desalination and remediation and aquifer remediation.
TUBLI SEWAGE POSITION
The complex issues generated through the Tubli Bay sewage outfall and the resulting biosolids disposal in municipal landfill, raise the opportunity for non-invasive, ecosocietally sustainable, vertically integrated solutions. The Tubli Bay issues; faecal pollution, disease risks to marine, bird and human life, environmental hyper-nutrification and ecological disruption, coupled with the landfill depositing of vast amounts of partially treated biosolids pose a compounding risk, and the exposure to reductions in environmental and societal well-being.
MUNICIPAL WASTE POSITION
Partially treated sewage and biosolids contain high concentrations of heavy metals, antibiotics and pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, viruses and parasites that can cause disease. Landfill depositing and naturally degrading disposal of semi-treated sewage biosolids creates potentials for ecological, environmental, and human exposure to undesirable organisms at many levels through direct and indirect contact. Therefore, to protect public health from these organisms, many countries have regulated the use and disposal of treated sewage and biosolids. Suitably treated and converted sewage biosolids, food and green waste can yield high concentrations of nutrients with which improve soil properties and plant growth whilst controlling and removing the biohazard ris
OIL PRODUCTION WATER POSITION
The National Oil and Gas Authority advised Earth Sustaining Sciences that there is the potential to treat significant amounts of oil production water (~16 million litres/day) from Bahrain wells and production facilities. The production water is forecast to contain heavy metals, metalloids, simplex and complex organic compounds and hydrocarbon contaminants. TESSI has demonstrated many times the ability to treating such water in a timely, economic and societally serving all-natural manner. This will contribute to relief of Bahrain’s ecological and ecosocietal water stress and advance economic agricultural development in conjunction with soil and ecology building activities.
INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL POSITION
THE TESSI SYMBIOTIC AQUATIC BIOREACTOR (SABR) PROCESS BASED BAHRAIN SOLUTIONS
The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor (SABR) bioorganic management is an advantageous, economically, environmentally and societally sustainable method of converting unwanted effluent, food waste, green waste and bioorganic waste (sewage) into holistically valued water, soil and agricultural solutions. SABR offers the opportunity to solve challenging waste and effluent issues developing effective re-utilisation of process affected solids and compliant environmental release and re-use of contaminated waters in an economic, environmental and societally acceptable manner. The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute approach is to utilise complex combinations of their SABR and allied bioremediation processes to treat wastes, waters and soils achieving and applying beneficial outcomes to assist in the immediate remediation of on-site and off-site environmental and agricultural systems. Solutions are economic, ecologically, societally intergenerationally sustainable; assisting in securing and supporting cultural values. There are immediately implementable short, medium and long-term economic opportunities that take advantage of the development of remediated, and rehabilitated environments. Not the least of these is environmental agriculture in the form of domestic and commercial organic polyculture SymECulture. There is immediate opportunity to deliver national agenda driven and managed rapidly viable long-term economic, ecologically sound, societal solutions. Remediation activities will provide immediate community engagement, training and employment directly engaging progression to business development in environmental remediation, rehabilitation and supported organic polyculture SymECulture (agriculture cultivation) focusing on commodity development to service high-value accessible markets. In doing this, the narrative will change from one of compounding risk to one of international success growth operation. Economic environmental security and intergenerational community-based food security is dependent upon sustainable arable soils and clean water availability. Without an ecology there is no economy. Worldwide, there is a desperate need for cost-effective, low risk commercial level desalination solutions for water and soils, for the advancement of global agricultural and societal prosperity. The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor (SABR) process, highly successful in managing pH, stripping metals and metalloid contaminants from effluents, water and soils in conditions displaying 0.5 pH to 14 pH, has now been advanced to remove salinity. The process delivered biodesalination of seawater from 35000 ppm to 2000 ppm and biodesalination of wheatbelt paddock soils and salt lake water from 27000 ppm to 50 ppm delivering economic, sustainable freshwater and arable soils over a broad scope. The all-natural biological improvement of environments from high pressure saline situations, societally and economically delivering a complete soil and water solutions process lifecycle. The derivative complexes of the SABR and allied biological processes are a series of 6 solutions systems:
- Stage-1 (SABR-AMD) delivers metals and metalloid solutions,
- Stage-2 (SABR-Solve) delivers associated contamination solutions,
- Stage-3 (SABR-RM) delivers chemical and caustic contamination solutions,
- Stage-4 (SABR-BODS) delivers salinity and associated contamination solutions,
- Stage-5 (SABR-SL) SABRSoil Lifecycle Process delivers an effective, affordable combination of all-natural bioorganics to soil development and sand to soil for sustainable ecologies, environments and agriculture solutions in pH, salinity, bionutrification, wetting, binding and surface stabilisation and management in a single process.
The SABR process, proven as a leading answer to most global environmental effluent, water and soil issues, now combines commercial level solutions to municipal waste, pollution and agriculture in economic, biosecure and ecologically beneficial processes.
ENDURING TRANSFERENCE - KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE, EMPOWERMENT
KNOWLEDGE SHARING AND LEARNING PROGRAMS
There is immediate opportunity to deliver long-term economically, ecologically and societally sound solutions aligned with the national agenda of the Kingdom of Bahrain. Remediation activities will provide immediate community engagement, training and employment, leading directly to business development in environmental remediation, rehabilitation and supported organic polyculture SymECulture styles of agriculture. In doing this, the domestic and international narrative will change from one of compounding risk to one of international success and growth. Environmental security and intergenerational food security is dependent upon economic systems of sustainable arable soils and clean water availability.
ENDURING PROSPERITY - DYNAMIC, ECOSOCIETAL, INTERGENERATIONAL AGRICULTURE SOLUTIONS
The ESSG and TESSI Polyculture SymECulture Agriculture systems implementations utilise the TESSI Symbiotic Aquatic BioReactor process and allied technology and practices to develop all-natural solutions in intergenerational, ecosocietally sustainable ecological and environmental remediation, rehabilitation, agriculture, bionutrification, and commercial crop production from previously untenable lands and waters. The system includes:
- Providing practical over technical biological, ecological, environmental and agricultural management processes,
- Education, training and functional assistance as facilitating practitioners, educators, coaches and mentors in designing, growing and delivering year-round tailored crops,
- Development and support of specialised livestock and farming process integration, introducing high-yield carcass boutique beef cattle and goat industries,
- Development of poly-species desert freshwater and saline aquaculture and coastal mariculture,
- Development of value adding individual and community empowerment and micro/macro business and integration through integrated management processes support and specialised ecological, environmental and societal integration mechanisms.
The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute Polyculture SymECulture Agriculture Advancing system utilises local proven and developed introduced on-site nursery crop stock. Bahrain has a learned community of specialists in these areas and the opportunity to deliver minimum change for maximum benefit agricultural approaches is significant. This initial stock profile contains in excess of one hundred and fifty (150) environmentally and commercially suited species or hybrids. The systems designs are globally proven in many climates, specifically desert climates. The systems deliver micro to macro plot agriculture focused upon varied designs, however, in the Bahrain Southern Governate Central Valley a system of interlinking circles of agriculture are considered as the baseline design utilizing the fractals design methodology. This permits multiple systematic growing pattern integration for rotating symbiotic polyculture cropping.
WATER SOLUTIONS SYSTEMS
WATER DECONTAMINATION SOLUTIONS
WATER DESALINATION SOLUTIONS
CONTAMINATED WATER TO AGRICULTURE WATER AND POTABLE WATER TREATMENT SOLUTIONS
HYDROCARBONS PROCESS-WATER TREATMENT AND RE-USE SOLUTIONS
HYDROCARBON FRACKING-WATER TREATMENT AND RE-USE SOLUTIONS
SOIL SOLUTIONS SYSTEMS SOIL DESALINATION PROCESS
SOIL DECONTAMINATION PROCESS
SABR SOIL LIFECYCLE PROCESS
SOIL BIOSTIMULATION PROCESSES
WASTE SOLUTIONS SYSTEMS SEWAGE SLUDGE CONVERSION TO SUSTAINING ECOLOGY
- TERTIARY EFFLUENT AND WATER TREATMENT
- ENVIRONMENTAL SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
- ENVIRONMENTAL FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT
- ENVIRONMENTAL GREEN WASTE MANAGEMENT
SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE & HIGH VOLUME COMMERCIAL
SymECulture Design, Implementation &Management
TESSI Research and Education Farm Salinity Solutions
Permaculture & SymECulture on land no one either wanted or saw of current or future value.
The Tilligerry Research and Education Farm of 25 acres was created in 1994 on coastal estuarine saline tidal saturated mudflats to demonstrate the conversion of hyper-saline lands to arable commercial agriculture lands using a wastelands to rich-lands SymECulture/Permaculture methodologies, and continues to thrive with forward projections. The original primary growth on the 25 acres was Mangrove, Casuarina, Eucalyptus Robusta (Swamp Mahogany) and Juncas, Salicornia and Botany Bay Greens. The entire site was saline; In parts with salinity approaching 30,000 ppm (estuarine mud) and over a progressive period the lands were desalinated to less than 500 ppm with some areas remaining up to 1000 ppm having mulberry. banana, mango, citrus, fig, date palms, avocado, apricot, apple, nashi pear, and a multitude of other species thriving within 1 m of full estuarine salinity. The farm establishment of the first demonstration of successful estuarine SymECulture/Permaculture system in Australia, becoming a global example of SymECulture/Permaculture, integrated agriculture/aquaculture ecosystems, with research and development active for more than 20-years.
- The farm operation developed as societal, ecological, environmentally positive SymECulture/Permaculture with a sound ethical based intergenerationally sustainable focus. Under the direction of Richard Barker, the farm and operations facilitate sustainable ventures that have a strong sense of purpose and tangible goals that meet and support societal needs. As a founding element of The Earth Sustaining Sciences Institute the farm philosophy and methodologies encourage self and societal development through the building of a SymECulture/Permaculture environment in business and relationships, teaching practical over technical application of applied multidisciplinary sciences with ecosystem design and organisation skills frameworks in easily understood delivery and instruction.
Hypersaline Mud Flats and Inter-tidal Lands Became Highly Productive
Chinampa System Southern Hemisphere Seasonal Cycle
The Permaculture Design of Tilligerry Research and Education Farm
Ocean Tidal Inundation Before Levee System Fully Established
Inundation Controlling Levee System Construction Base
Inundation Controlling Levee System Established
Stabilised Inundation Containment Levee System
Freshwater Aquaculture System Inside Inundation Containment Levee System
Chinampa System: Integrated Permaculture Agriculture/Aquaculture Farming
Location Pre-Chinampa Chinampa formulation Chinampa Initial Plantings Chinampa Crop
Chinampa Harvest & Biomass returned Chinampa Next Crop Chinampa Harvest Biomass ready for return
TESSI Queensland, Australia Dryland Sand Biome Research and Development Farm
Dry Land Savannah Cropping Research and Development
A savannah is a mixed woodland/grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannah maintains an open canopy despite a high tree density. It is often believed that Savannah feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in many savanna's, tree densities are higher, and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests. The South American savannah types cerrado sensu stricto and cerrado dense typically have densities of trees similar to or higher than that found in South American tropical forests, with savannah ranging from 800–3300 trees per hectare and adjacent forests with 800–2000 trees per hectare. Similarly, Guinean savannah has 129 trees per hectare, compared to 103 for riparian forest, while Eastern Australian (Queensland) sclerophyll forests have average tree densities of approximately 100 per hectare. Savannah is also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomes and are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland. Savannah covers approximately 20% of the Earth's land area and can be a most productive polyculture environment.
Australian Dryland Savannah Cropping Project
ESSI Queensland, Australia Dryland Sand Biome Research and Development Farm
The 11-acre research and development property is a low latitude subtropical extremely poor fertility dry-land pasture with no artificial irrigation, in a minimum 410 mm, mean 930 mm rainfall band, with mean temperatures ranging 35°C to 2.4°C. Climatic conditions including rainfall inputs, isolation and evapotranspiration are monitored by a continuous meteorological instrumentation suite reporting at 5 second intervals and recording means to a database at 30-minute intervals. The farm has had mesh boundary fencing in place for 17-years to exclude native wildlife and thus afford increased control of the nature and load on grazing cells. S wales were built on 30 mm resolution laser contours 25 m apart by pulling back 3 m strips of topsoil to expose subsoil, excavating up-slope subsoil across 3 m to build a trapezoid swale profiles 500 mm high by 1 m wide, then pushing the topsoil back over the exposed subsoil band (see Figure 1). This was carried out to reduce soil erosion due to high levels of down slope sheet wash on the predominant 4° slope, and to increase soil moisture retention. Mature eucalypt spp. has been left if place to assist early stage soil stabilisation, though are ultimately detrimental to pasture quality through inherent allelopathy and shade-out coupled with excessive non-productive nutrient and moisture sequestration. Soil has a coarse sand texture dominated by sub-angular quartz. The highest swale (1) shows an orange colour; the sand shows a significant residual smectite iolite clay component through shielding by overlying residual ferruginous sandstone saprock. The second swale shows a browner colour with less clay but incompletely leached organic components. The swale shows a pale-yellow sand with minimal non-quartzose material. The lowest swale (3) is nearly white sand leached of organics, iron oxides and clays through sub-surface water flow. This super leached sand is exposed by natural peneplaining processes to form the surface 800 mm of 75% of the property area which, having poor moisture retention, poor carbon exchange capacity, very low soil carbon and organics, is extremely low fertility comparable to, or poorer than, typical tropical belt desert sands or wet tropical high leach palaeosols. The immediate goal of research and development on this ground is cost effective soil improvement to afford a long term stable C4 (cycles carbon dioxide into four-carbon sugar compounds) dominant pasture biome to provide sufficient forage to allow effectively managed cell grazing to support a commercial animal herd with minimal to nil supplemental feeding. The research herd chosen comprises miniature horses with adult body mass comparable to commercial fat caprines and ovines. This choice is based on the low gut efficiency of equines coupled with nutrient sensitivity (especially Ca and Se) and feeding selectivity. TESSI considers that if the research herd can be sustained to improve condition on the raised pasture, all commercial bovine, ovine and caprine ruminants can be managed to thrive under similar conditions. Many aspects of environmental conditions on TESSI Queensland facility are analogous to intermediate stage and late stage progression conditions on New South Wales, Bahrain, Thailand, Mongolian and Papua New Guinean TESSI project sites.